- Mental Health (#)
- Nutrition (#)
- Retention in Care (#)
- A "planting and eating soybean" project for people living with HIV/AIDS in rural Anhui - a pilot study in China.
Ji, G., R. Qi, H. Wang, C. Feng, and J. Leng. 2010. A "planting and eating soybean" project for people living with HIV/AIDS in rural anhui - a pilot study in china. AIDS Care 22 (1) (Jan): 126-32.
Many people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in rural Anhui, China are poor and lack sufficient protein in their diet. This project was to increase soybean protein in the diet of PLWHAs in a resource limited area in rural Anhui. A community intervention was implemented, by providing soybean seeds and a series of training courses on planting soybean, nutrition and preparing for soy food to PLWHA families in two villages in North Anhui. Participants were encouraged to eat soy food everyday after harvest. Among the 47 PLWHA participants in the assessment, 60% were females, 38% were illiterate, the average household income was 5323 Yuan ($760) per year. In 2006, they received soybean seeds of 320.5 kg and the harvest was 3465 kg four months later. In the past three months of the assessment, 94% had eaten soy food at least three times a week and 96% of them ate 100 g each time. After eating soy food, 93% felt better, 86% reported less sickness, 61.3% had higher total blood protein and blood white protein, 58.1% had higher blood hemoglobin, and 54.8% had higher CD(4) count. All participants liked the project and all hoped to continue the project. The preliminary data suggested that the pilot "planting and eating soybean" project was effective and sustainable for PLWHAs living in resource limited rural areas in Anhui, China.Nutrition
- Macronutrient supplementation and food prices in HIV treatment.
Sztam, K. A., W. W. Fawzi, and C. Duggan. 2010. Macronutrient supplementation and food prices in HIV treatment. The Journal of Nutrition 140 (1) (Jan): 213S-23S.
Infection caused by HIV and malnutrition have a complex interaction and often coexist geographically. Malnutrition has synergistic immune effects and HIV affects nutritional status. HIV care and treatment programs are compelled to confront this dual burden to optimize HIV outcomes. In this article, we review the published literature concerning intervention studies in adults and children and the effect of food prices on HIV treatment programs. While the evidence base is relatively incomplete for specific macronutrient interventions in the context of HIV treatment, it is clear that a new standard of care is needed, guided by experience, rationale, and existing data, in which malnourished patients may easily access nutritional therapies within HIV treatment. From this clinical foundation, we may both treat patients and evaluate novel therapies. Some HIV care and treatment programs provide food-based supplements; however, rising food costs and economic instability may jeopardize the success of these programs. HIV treatment programs may struggle to meet the needs of patients with potential increased rates of malnutrition and food insecurity in the setting of high food prices.Nutrition
- Families with HIV: the Canadian context
Family Front and Centre. The role of families in adapting to and preventing HIV/AIDS.
Families living with HIV face many challenges. In the Canadian context, one of the most striking aspects of families, including children, living with HIV is the diversity represented in this group. Many families are new to Canada; immigrants, refugees or without status. Most did not know about their HIV infection prior to their arrival in Canada and some who have been in Canada longer, only found out through HIV testing in pregnancy. There are challenges in accessing the health care system, language barriers and ethnocultural issues. Other families are of minority or marginalized groups including aboriginals, substance abusers, commercial sex workers and those with mental health problems. Some of the challenges they face include whether they can have a healthy baby and raising a child with HIV and challenges in daily living.Mental Health
- Global action for mental health
Newsletter of the centre for international mental health (2008). Global action for mental health, (1) 1.
This newsletter was intended as a quarterly publication to provide an update on the activities of the Centre for International Mental Health, as a means of communication with students, and to provide a means of communication to facilitate further collaboration in mental health service development.Mental Health
- The practice of community caregivers in a home-based HIV/AIDS project in South Africa
UYS, L. R. (2002). The practice of community caregivers in a home-based HIV/AIDS project in South Africa. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 11 (1), 99-108.
The aim of this study was to describe the practice of community caregivers in a home-based AIDS care project at seven sites in South Africa. The community caregivers felt positive about the contribution they made, but found it difficult to cope with the poverty and complexity of problems they were faced with. They visited each client an average of five times per month, and their care usually involved counseling and informing, symptom control, psychosocial support and welfare assistance.Mental Health
- Adaptive Strategies and Coping Mechanisms of Families and Communities Affected by HIV/AIDS in Malawi
Munthali, A. (2002) Adaptive Strategies and Coping Mechanisms of Families and Communities Affected by HIV/AIDS in Malawi. UNRISD.
The HIV/AIDS pandemic places tremendous strains on households and communities to care for those who are chronically ill as well as the orphans and the elderly. This paper examines some of the coping mechanisms seen within Malawian families and communities as they respond to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The extended family system is still the first choice of coping though it is under great strain due to HIV/AIDS. This applies to both caring for the chronically ill as well as taking care of orphans. In the absence of relatives (or unwilling relatives), children assume the role of caregivers to their parents or indeed in the case of the death of both parents children care for themselves. Early marriages, dropping out of school in order to head a family, casual labor and piece work, small scale sales, are some of the strategies being used in Malawi to cope with the impacts of HIV/AIDS. In addition to these informal social safety nets, community based organizations have also been established in different parts of Malawi with the aim of assisting those families affected by HIV/AIDS.Mental Health
- Community study of knowledge of and attitude to mental illness in Nigeria
Oye, G. et al. (2005). Community study of knowledge of and attitude to mental illness in Nigeria. British Journal of Psychiatry. 186, 436-441
The improvement of community tolerance of people with mental illness is important for their integration. Little is known about the knowledge of and attitude to mental illness in sub-Saharan Africa. The study aims to determine the knowledge and attitudes of a representative community sample in Nigeria. Findings indicated that there is a widespread stigmatization of mental illness in the Nigerian community.Mental Health
- Developing mental health services in Nigeria. The impact of a community-based mental health awareness programme
Agomoh, A. & Eaton, J. (2008). Developing mental health services in Nigeria. The impact of a community-based mental health awareness programme. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 43:552–558
This grass-roots level mental health awareness programme considerably increased use of community-based mental health services in a part of Nigeria where knowledge about treatability of mental illness was limited. The benefits of the programme were sustained for a significant period after the initial awareness programme. In order for attitude changes to be reinforced, similar awareness programmes must be repeated at regular intervals.Mental Health
- Do beliefs about causation influence attitudes to mental illness?
Gureje, O et al. (2006). Do beliefs about causation influence attitudes to mental illness. World Psychiatry, 5(2): 104–107.
Studies indicate that stigmatizing attitudes to mental illness are rampant in the community worldwide. It is unclear whether views about the causation of mental disorders identify persons with more negative attitudes. Using data collected as part of a community study of knowledge of and attitudes to mental illness in Nigeria, we examined the relationships between views about causation and attitudes. Persons holding exclusively biopsychosocial views of causation were not different from those holding exclusively religious-magical views in regard to socio-demographic attributes, and the two groups were not very dissimilar when general knowledge of the nature of mental illness was compared. However, religious-magical views of causation were more associated with negative and stigmatizing attitudes to the mentally ill. Findings demonstrate the challenge of developing and delivering an educational program to change public attitudes to mental illness.Mental Health
- Drugs, Sex, and Gender-Based Violence: The intersection of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic with Vulnerable Women in South Africa – Forging a Multilevel Collaborative Response
Wechsberg, W., Parry, C. & Jewkes, R (2008). Drugs, Sex, and Gender-Based Violence: The intersection of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic with Vulnerable Women in South Africa – Forging a Multilevel Collaborative Response
Many important studies have identified what puts vulnerable women at risk for HIV/AIDS and gender-based violence. However, solving these problems on a larger economic scale will require institutional participation and political support for women’s equity, HIV-prevention literacy, and a broader HIV-prevention agenda. This can be accomplished with a multilevel, collaborative response among government, communities, and international partners using multiple prevention strategies and fostering sustainability.Mental Health
- Khat and alcohol use and risky sex behaviour among in-school and out-of-school youth in Ethiopia
Kebede, D. (2005). Khat and alcohol use and risky sex behaviour among in-school and out-of-school youth in Ethiopia. BMC Public Health 2005, 5:109
Khat (an evergreen plant with amphetamine-like properties) and alcohol are widely consumed among the youth of Ethiopia. However, their relationship to risky sexual behaviour is not well described. This study was conducted to describe the magnitude of risky sexual behaviour (unprotected sex and early initiation of sexual activity) and its association with Khat and alcohol consumption in Ethiopian youths. A substantial proportion of out-of-school youth engage in risky sex. The use of Khat and alcohol and other substances is significantly and independently associated with risky sexual behaviour among Ethiopian youths.Mental Health
- Mental health and sexual risk behaviors in a South African township: A community-based cross-sectional study
Smith, Myer, et al. (2006) Mental health and sexual risk behaviors in a South African township: A community-based cross-sectional study, Public Health, 120, 534–542
The cross sectional study examined the association between mental illness and HIV risk behaviors among 645 randomly selected individuals living in households in a South African township. A self-administered translated questionnaire investigated sexual risk behaviors [including sexual partners, condom use, casual sexual contacts, and sex in exchange for money, drugs or a place to stay (transactional sex)]. The findings emphasize the substantial burden of mental illness in this setting, and its association with forced and transactional sex. Public health interventions are needed to address the dual burden of HIV/AIDS and mental illness in this and similar settings. This study found that having evidence of mental illness was associated with experiencing forced sex, transactional sex and increased condom use.Mental Health
- Mental health pathways from interpersonal violence to health-related outcomes in HIV-positive sexual minority men
Pantalone D.W., Hessler, D.M., & Simoni, J.M. (2010). Mental health pathways from interpersonal violence to health-related outcomes in HIV-positive sexual minority men. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(3):387-97
This study examined mental health pathways between interpersonal violence (IPV) and health-related outcomes in HIV-positive sexual minority men engaged with medical care. Findings of the study indicated a significant role of IPV and mental health problems in the health of people living with HIV/AIDS. HIV care providers should assess for IPV history and mental health problems in all patients and refer for evidence-based psychosocial treatments that include a focus on health behaviors.Mental Health
- Handbook on Pædiatric AIDS in Africa
Handbook on Pædiatric AIDS in Africa. Revised Edition. African Network for the Care of Children Affected by AIDS. 2006.
HIV/AIDS is a major cause of infant and childhood mortality and morbidity in Africa. In children under five years of age, HIV/AIDS now accounts for 7.7% of mortality worldwide. AIDS already accounts for a rise of more than 19% in infant mortality and a 36% rise in underfive mortality. Together with factors such as declining immunisation, HIV/AIDS is threatening recent gains in infant and child survival and health.
This handbook seeks to provide a simple, accessible, and practical handbook for health professionals involved in preventing infection and caring for children infected and affected by HIV. The primary targets are medical students and their lecturers, nurses, clinicians, community health workers, and other service providers in resourcepoor settings where there is a significant HIV/AIDS burden.Nutrition
- The Way We Care: A Guide for Managers of Programs Serving Vulnerable Children and Youth
Steinitz L. Y., Green K., Matengu M., Medrano T., and Murithi, L. 2009. The Way We Care: A Guide for Managers of Programs Serving Vulnerable Children and Youth . FHI.
This self-teach manual is designed to help new and recently promoted managers of programs serving vulnerable children and youth who are affected by disease, extreme poverty, and trauma. The Way We Care promotes a child-focused and family-centered approach and emphasizes the newest literature, as it highlights the integration of prevention, care, and treatment and addresses both HIV and risk factors for other diseases.Nutrition
- Ethiopia National Nutrition and HIV/AIDS Implementation Reference Manual
Ethiopia National Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Nutrition. Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH), Family Health Department. 2008. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
The Manual outlines the objectives, targets, and major components and activities for nutritional care of PLWH as part of the national response to HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia. The National Nutrition and HIV/AIDS Implementation Reference Manual was developed in response to the need for a national strategy on nutrition and HIV identified at a November 2007 national consultation workshop on integrating nutrition interventions into HIV care and treatment services.Nutrition
- PROFILES for Nutrition Analysis, Advocacy and Program Planning - How It Works
Academy for Educational Development, (date unknown). Factsheet: PROFILES for Nutrition Analysis, Advocacy, and Program Planning.
Factsheet that discusses PROFILES, a computer-based software and advocacy process developed to assist policy-makers in quantifying the consequences of nutritional deficiencies and making projections about the benefits of nutrition programs and policies.Nutrition
- PROFILES: Improving Nutrition through Analysis, Advocacy, and Program Planning
Academy for Educational Development, (date unknown). Factsheet: PROFILES for Nutrition Analysis, Advocacy, and Program Planning.
Article reviewing PROFILES, a computer-based software and advocacy process developed to assist policy-makers in quantifying the consequences of nutritional deficiencies and making projections about the benefits of nutrition programs and policies.Nutrition