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HIV Prevention Knowledge Base

A Collection of Research and Tools to Help You Find What Works in Prevention

Biomedical Interventions: Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision

Link to important additional materials and websites

2012 International AIDS Conference

A number of VMMC abstracts were presented at the 2012 International AIDS Conference. Here are a few:


Implementation of VMMC Efficiency Elements in Four Sub-Saharan Countries: Service Delivery Methods and Provider Attitudes

Bertrand, J., Rech, D., Njeuhmeli, E., et al. XIX International AIDS Conference (2012). Abstract MOPDE010.

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Determinants of VMMC Provider Burnout in Four Sub-Saharan Countries

Bertrand, J., Rech, D., Njeuhmeli, E., et al. XIX International AIDS Conference (2012). Abstract MOPDE0102 (poster discussion).

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pdf View Slides outside link (PDF, 2.1 MB)


Service Delivery Trends in Kenya's Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Scale-Up from 2008-2011

Mwandi, Z., Ochieng, A., Grund, J., et al. XIX International AIDS Conference (2012). Abstract MOPDE0104.

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Male Circumcision in Swaziland: Demographics, Behaviours and HIV Prevalence

Reed, J.B., Mirira, M., Grund, J., et al. XIX International AIDS Conference (2012). Abstract MOPDE0105.

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A Comparative Analysis of Two High-Volume Male Medical Circumcision (MMC) Operational Models with Similar Service Delivery Outcomes in Different Settings within Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal Provinces in South Africa: Urban Centre for HIV/AIDS Prevention Study

Soboil, N., Cockburn, J., Rech, D., et al. XIX International AIDS Conference (2012). Abstract MOPDE0106.

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We Too Are Shareholders: Why Women Must Be Meaningfully Involved in the Rollout of Medical Male Circumcision in Africa

Agot, K., Ohaga, S., Ayieko, B., et al. XIX International AIDS Conference (2012). Abstract MOPDE0107.

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Population-Level Impact of Male Circumcision on HIV Incidence: Rakai, Uganda

Gray, R., Kigozi, G., Serwadda, D., et al. Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (2012). Paper 36.

The authors of this study assessed male circumcision uptake and the population-level impact on HIV incidence in Rakai, Uganda. The oral abstract was presented at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in 2012.

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Zimbabwe HIV Prevention E-Toolkit

K4Health (2012).

The toolkit offers a selection of different materials including research papers, books, training materials, and behavior change communication materials across the spectrum of HIV prevention topics. Readers can access materials and resources on behavior change communication, condom use, family planning and HIV service integration, male circumcision, multiple and concurrent partners, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and voluntary counseling and testing.

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AVAC, Global Advocacy for HIV Prevention

AVAC (2013).

The website offers the latest news on the past, present, or ongoing status of biomedical HIV prevention research studies. Readers can review summary tables from various HIV prevention clinical trials, search information on prevention trails, see what is new on the site this month, and review the user’s guide for help in using the site. The site offers information about the following biomedical prevention trials: microbicides, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), treatment as prevention, and vaccines.

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Clearinghouse on Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention

WHO, UNAIDS, AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition, and FHI (undated).

This website is a comprehensive resource for people seeking information on male circumcision (MC) for HIV prevention. It was developed to provide “evidence-based guidance, information and resources to support the delivery of safe male circumcision services in countries that choose to scale up male circumcision as one component of comprehensive HIV prevention services.” Information is categorized by research findings, advocacy, policies and programs, and training. Readers can also browse through publications, browse site content by topic, or search through a resource database. Materials can be immediately downloaded, including training manuals, planning tools, and situation analysis toolkits.

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C-Change: Communication for Change

fhi360  (undated).

This website contains communication toolkits, including one on male circumcision (MC). Developed for audiences in Nyanza province, Kenya, the toolkit contains all of the communication materials used to promote MC in the province. Readers can download a communication guide, community dialogue cards, a flip chart for counselors to use, posters about health and MC, a video, and other materials that can be adapted for a comprehensive MC communication campaign in other settings.

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Southern and Eastern Africa Region Male Circumcision Communication Meeting: A Joint UNAIDS & PEPFAR Sponsored Meeting

Bertrand, J. T., Evanson, L., et al. (2010).

The rapid roll-out of male circumcision (MC) programming is crucial to halting the further spread of the HIV epidemic in countries with generalized epidemics and low rates of MC. This is an urgent public health challenge; if the 14 target countries reach 80 percent coverage by 2015, an estimated 4 million adult infections will be averted. Modeling indicates that reaching these targets faster will avert even more new infections than a gradual scale-up. Creating demand for adolescent and adult MC is essential to the success of scale-up. To consolidate learning and to advance MC communication, the Male Circumcision Technical Working Group for the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS organized the first regional meeting on MC communication on September 22 to 24, 2010. Held in Durban, South Africa, the three-day meeting brought together 117 health professionals from 14 countries in eastern and southern Africa and international experts from Europe and North America. The meeting aimed to advance knowledge and to share promising experiences and communication materials for adolescent and adult MC in three key areas: demand creation, client counseling, and advocacy. The program provided participants with an overview of current work in MC communication and fostered interactive and in-depth discussion of key issues in small group settings.

pdf View Report (PDF, 834 KB) outside link


In It to Save Lives: Scaling Up Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention for Maximum Public Health Impact

AIDSTAR-One, U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. (2011).

In this 15-minute film, award-winning filmmaker Lisa Russell tells the story of how governments in Kenya and Swaziland have embraced voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention to turn the tide of the epidemic in their countries. Produced by AIDSTAR-One, the film features interviews with a variety of experts, policymakers, and implementers, and shows that VMMC programs can be replicated and expanded to reach the critical mass needed for maximum public health impact.

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Manual for early infant male circumcision under local anaesthesia

WHO, Jhpiego, 2011.

This manual builds on the World Health Organization’s Manual for male circumcision under local anaesthesia and focuses entirely on early infant male circumcision. It has been developed by WHO in collaboration with Jhpiego to help providers and programme managers deliver high-quality safe infant male circumcision services for the purposes of HIV prevention and other health benefits. It draws from experiences with service provision in Africa, the Eastern Mediterranean and developed countries and was reviewed by actual and potential providers of male circumcision services representing a range of health care and cultural settings where demand for male circumcision services is high.

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Medical Male Circumcision as HIV Prevention: Follow the Evidence: The Case for Aggressive Scale Up

Center for Global Health Policy, 2010

This report first reviews the epidemiologic evidence of the effectiveness in male circumcision (MC) in reducing heterosexual HIV transmission. In the second section, the authors present a strategy for scaling up MC services in priority areas, identifying criteria for using MC as a way to reduce HIV rates, what clinical services are needed, and how MC can have a synergistic effect on HIV when it is part of a package of HIV prevention interventions. Lastly, the document provides data on how this one-time, low-cost, cost-effective intervention has the potential to avert a significant number of HIV infections. The authors argue that the evidence presents a compelling argument for rapid scale-up of MC programs in HIV endemic areas.

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Male Circumcision

US Agency for International Development, 2010

This webpage provides a concise overview of the US Agency for International Development’s (USAID) position on voluntary medical male circumcision (MC) as part of a comprehensive package of HIV prevention programs and services. The page also briefly summarizes USAID’s assistance for implementing MC in southern and eastern Africa.

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USAID Technical Issue Brief: Medical Male Circumcision and HIV Prevention

US Agency for International Development, 2010

This four-page brief describes the US Agency for International Development’s (USAID) voluntary medical male circumcision (MC) activities as part of the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. In addition to containing background information on MC, readers can learn about ensuring adequate supplies of MC kits, providing services, and costing and impact summaries. A case study from Swaziland provides an overview of an accelerated saturation initiative.

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PEPFAR External Quality Assurance Tools

COMING SOON


PEPFAR Site Operational Guidance

COMING SOON