HIV Prevention Knowledge Base
Combination Approaches: Enhancing the Reach & Effectiveness of MSM-Targeted Combination HIV Prevention Interventions
International HIV/AIDS Alliance, Understanding and Challenging Stigma: Toolkit for Action
This toolkit evolved out of a two-year research project on stigma conducted in Zambia, Tanzania, and Ethiopia, and was originally published in 2003. The toolkit contains more than 100 participatory exercises that can be adapted to fit different groups and contexts. Various sets of pictures help to identify stigma, discuss the rights of HIV-positive people, and stimulate discussions around gender, sexuality, and morality issues linked to stigma. The toolkit is a collaboration among the International HIV/AIDS Alliance, the International Center for Research on Women, the Academy for Educational Development, and PACT Tanzania. The revised edition (2007) builds on the original toolkit and includes the experience of the International HIV/AIDS Alliance's Regional Stigma Training Project. New modules now address stigma as it relates to antiretroviral treatment, children, youth, and men who have sex with men. (9 booklets, each 30 to 50 pages)
Understanding and Challenging Stigma toward Men Who Have Sex with Men: Toolkit for Action, Cambodia Edition
This 300-page resource was developed in Cambodia, where the HIV epidemic is concentrated among key populations at higher risk, including a diverse community of MSM. The toolkit, adapted and tested with local organizations in Cambodia, includes participatory, educational exercises that can be used with a wide range of individuals and groups to fight stigma and discrimination toward MSM. Although it is Cambodia-specific, it can be adapted to other contexts, and may serve as a useful tool for groups who are challenging MSM-related stigma and discrimination in their particular contexts.
Understanding and Reducing Stigma Related to Men Who Have Sex with Men and HIV: Toolkit for Action, Hanoi
This toolkit, developed in Vietnam, is intended to guide action on understanding and challenging stigma related to MSM and TG people, with HIV prevention as one goal. It is designed to equip individuals and agencies working in HIV prevention with the knowledge and tools to understand basic issues related to gender, sexuality, and the sexual health of MSM and TG people, and to combat stigma. The toolkit is comprised of four sections: part A includes exercises aimed at building knowledge and skills related to gender and sexuality; part B is designed to increase understanding of MSM- and TG-specific stigma and discrimination; part C guides planning activities geared toward reducing stigma; and the annexes provide concrete ways to use the toolkit in a workshop setting. Although it is Vietnam-specific, the toolkit can be adapted to other contexts, and may serve as a useful tool for groups who are challenging MSM- and TG-related stigma in their particular contexts.
Rapid Assessment and Response Guide on HIV and Men Who Have Sex with Men
This 61-page guide for working with MSM explains how to conduct a Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR) focusing on lifestyles, behaviors, and HIV concerns. It outlines a series of simple and practical activities that may be used to explore the circumstances, experiences, and needs of MSM across a variety of settings. It was designed to be used either in conjunction with the WHO Rapid Assessment and Response Technical Guide or as an independent resource. Chapters in the manual offer guidelines for carrying out a RAR with MSM, including specific guidance on planning, training, community participation, analysis, and action plan development.
Between Men: HIV/STI Prevention for Men Who Have Sex with Men
This 61-page publication, one of the Key Population series, gives an overview of the issues for MSM related to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. The report is designed primarily to support policymakers, donors, and nongovernmental organization support programs that are planning to work in communities in developing countries where few or no organizations already work with MSM. Drawing on experiences of the Alliance's partner organizations in countries such as India and Costa Rica, the report addresses issues such as why and how men have sex with men, and presents strategies for developing prevention and care programs for men.
Speaking Out: A Toolkit for MSM-Led HIV & AIDS Advocacy
This advocacy toolkit was created to address the urgent need for MSM everywhere to engage in advocacy locally, nationally, and globally to end the HIV epidemic and promote their human rights. The toolkit equips individuals and organizations with tools and techniques enabling them to become advocates right now, whoever and wherever they happen to be. It builds on advances made in past toolkits from around the world, with some key differences: (1) it is specifically MSM-focused, with exercises and ideas that serve as conduits for the energy and contributions of MSM communities; (2) it is built on the belief that organizations can start where they are, and assumes that the skill sets of individual advocates and organizational maturity of MSM groups are wide-ranging and take time to develop; and (3) it approaches HIV from a broad human rights framework, balancing public health and human rights approaches toward addressing MSM community susceptibility to HIV. It is designed to be participatory and contains facilitation tools, including handouts.
Respect, Protect, Fulfill—Best Practices Guidance in Conducting HIV Research with Gay, Bisexual and Other MSM in Rights-Constrained Environments
This guidance document was developed for both researchers and CBOs in rights-constrained environments. It is intended to help both groups to better design and conduct meaningful research on HIV among MSM in challenging social, political, and human rights contexts. It provides a checklist of factors for researchers and CBOs to consider in the design, conduct, and implementation of research studies, and offers lessons learned from case studies of research and community partnerships, recent successes, and challenges. It contains a user-friendly set of appendices with questions for researchers and CBOs to ask as they engage in MSM-focused research to ensure that they are on the right track.
Supporting Community-Based Responses to AIDS, Tuberculosis & Malaria: A Guidance Tool for Including Community Systems Strengthening in Proposals for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis & Malaria
Community Systems Strengthening (CSS) is about building the capacity of CBOs to become active participants in the HIV response. Although this tool is primarily intended for use by those planning, advocating for, or drafting proposals to the Global Fund, it includes concrete CSS activities and models that can be applied in other contexts. Building on the information provided in the Global Fund’s 2010 CSS Framework and additional updates to the CSS indicators, this document aims to (1) increase understanding of CSS; (2) provide practical guidance on developing CSS activities for Global Fund proposals, advocating for including CSS in national and regional proposals; and (3) suggest ways to more effectively implement CSS activities in successful proposals.
Operational Guidelines for Monitoring and Evaluation of HIV Programmes for Sex Workers, Men Who Have Sex with Men, and Transgender People—Volumes I and II, National and Sub-National Levels
This set of guidelines provides guidance in planning, monitoring, and evaluating programs for MSM, sex workers, and TG people for national, sub-national levels (volume I), and service delivery (volume II) levels. The first volume is intended for country- and national-level bodies and donor agencies, while the second is intended for networks, NGOs, and other civil society groups. The guidelines are organized using the "eight steps" model for HIV prevention, and contain summary information, methods and tools, and resource lists.
Engaging Men Who Have Sex with Men in the Clinical Setting: A Primer for Physicians, Nurses, and Other Health Care Providers
This document serves as a primer on health care provision for MSM for physicians, nurses, and other health care providers in diverse clinical settings. It outlines the roles and responsibilities of health care providers regarding MSM, debunks myths commonly associated with homosexuality, and takes up key issues that affect MSM health, such as mental health, sex work, physical and sexual violence, drug use, and family relationships. The document contains an extensive resource list for health care providers interested in deepening MSM care provision knowledge and skills.
Blueprint for Provision of Comprehensive Care to Gay Men and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Latin America and the Caribbean
This document offers a set of tools to assist planning and implementation of MSM-oriented health promotion and health care activities in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region. It reflects recommendations emerging from the expert Regional Consultation on Health Promotion and the Provision of Care to Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Latin America and the Caribbean, held July 14-16, 2009, in Panama City. The document contains a compendium of management algorithms, or step-by-step procedural diagrams, that encompass the essential elements of a variety of approaches to MSM health, such as first clinical evaluation, HIV risk and infection, ano-rectal health, substance use, sexual concerns, emotional and mental health, consequences of violence, and community-clinic interaction. Although developed for the LAC region, it is a tool that can inform health care provision in other contexts.
Reducing HIV Stigma and Discrimination: A Critical Part of National AIDS Programs
This document presents strategies, program examples, and research findings about how governments, the UN system, donors, and civil society can make the reduction of HIV-related stigma and discrimination central in the national response to AIDS. Section 1 explains why stigma and discrimination serve as major roadblocks to universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support; section 2 discusses how national AIDS control programs can reduce stigma and discrimination; and section 3 lays out steps toward effective responses to HIV stigma and discrimination. Annexes include examples of successful programs, tools for measuring stigma and discrimination, resources for stigma reduction, and key points for advocacy.
Legal Aspects of HIV/AIDS: A Guide for Policy and Law Reform
This 250-page document is intended as a practical guide to legal reform to enable effective action against HIV. It seeks to alert those working on HIV strategies and projects to opportunities for legal and policy reform and to provide them with tools to undertake these challenges. The guide identifies key issues, discusses the pertinent legal and policy considerations for each issue, and provides at least one good practice example for each, as well as resources for continued research and reading. An MSM-focused section discusses gender orientation in general antidiscrimination statutes, sexual offenses, vague or overbroad criminal statutes and police harassment, and rights of association and expression.
MSM: An Introductory Guide for Health Workers In Africa
This 102-page manual is designed to provide counselors and health care providers who work in Africa with a detailed understanding of MSM, issues that affect MSM health, and how to approach MSM in clinical settings. It is an interactive guide with group exercises, summaries, and tools to assess understanding and develop commitment. Topics covered include an overview of MSM and HIV in Africa; stigma, sexual identity, coming out and disclosure; anal sex and common sexual practices; HIV and STIs; mental health; condom and lubricant use; and risk reduction counseling. Although the guide is Africa-focused, it can be adapted for use in other contexts.
From Top to Bottom: A Sex-Positive Approach for Men Who Have Sex with Men
This manual, developed in South Africa but relevant in regions across the world, has been put together with health care providers in mind. The manual is divided into six sections: introduction to the manual; overview of MSM in terms of sexuality and sexual identity and key terminology; the broader public health strategies relating to MSM; the role of the health care provider in terms of providing quality, competent MSM services; the potential mental health problems that affect MSM; and practical guidelines in relation to the medical management of sexual health problems that may affect MSM.