HIV Prevention Knowledge Base
Structural Interventions: Interventions Addressing Policy Factors
Breaking Barriers to HIV Prevention, Treatment, and Care for Women
This set of case studies describes interventions and activism by women to influence and shape policies, laws, HIV and AIDS programs, and access to HIV and AIDS services. One case example focuses on how Internet technology is used by activists to disseminate information, to organize and gain support for and deliver message on policies and policy implementation. Another case study summarizes the activities of the Malawi Health Equity Network. Among other things, the network analyzes the national budget before it is finalized and publishes the findings of the analysis in newspapers, to illuminate how funding is allocated. The public dissemination of the draft budget and related analysis allows other organizations to argue for changes before final adoption of the budget.
South Africa’s Treatment Action Campaign (TAC): An Example of a Successful Human Rights Campaign for Health. Chapter 3 in Introduction: Politics, Human Rights and Poor Global Health
The article summarizes the efforts of the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) in South Africa to mobilize public opinion and pressure the national government to provide for the needs of people living with HIV and to expand resources for prevention initiatives. Heywood, an AIDS activist, argues that “the right to health [cannot] be pursued outside of law, politics or issues of governance.” In order to create a social movement, not just a top-down advocacy campaign, “TAC became the first AIDS organization to pioneer HIV ‘treatment literacy’ in a developing country. Treatment literacy is a program of health education and communication that aims to educate HIV-vulnerable and poor people about the science of HIV, health and the benefits of treatment.” TAC actively engaged with the South African government to achieve policy reforms and expand HIV and AIDS services.
Swaziland Antiretroviral Therapy Policy Dialogue (APD) Report
The paper is a report of a workshop designed to provide community input to the policy and programmatic provision of ART in Swaziland. Representatives from a national organization of people living with HIV (PLWH), an organization of women living with HIV and AIDS, the national ART coordinator’s office, and a clinician from a health facility initiated the dialogue about the progress toward full implementation of the national policy. These representatives’ perspectives on the implications for service delivery of ART balanced the policy focus of the workshop. From the perspective of PLWH, far more was needed to meet their constituents’ needs. Each speaker included issues of prevention in their presentations. One participant noted that the workshop was a “good starting point in forwarding the ART agenda and as a mode of diversifying the means and source of information sharing and subsequent translation into action.”
HIV and AIDS Prevention and Control Act
This legislation enacted in Kenya includes, among other things, language prohibiting discrimination against people living with HIV and AIDS. The law promotes HIV prevention and guarantees the full human rights of all citizens suspected or known to be infected with HIV and AIDS. It established a tribunal which is tasked “to hear and determine complaints arising out of any breach of the provisions of this Act.” The law has faced criticism from groups representing people living with HIV and AIDS and human rights advocates. They worry that one provision about knowingly transmitting HIV may subject all people living with HIV and AIDS to criminal law. Kenya is still working out details for implementation of the law.
The Role of Public Policy in Prevention and Control of Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Guide to Laws, Regulations And Technical Guidelines
The guide provides a standard outline of key elements in developing a policy. Especially useful therein is the chapter dealing with operational factors to consider, not only when implementing a policy but also in considering the legal and regulatory factors during the drafting of a policy. An example of a national STI policy is offered in an annex to the guidelines. As in this instance, international agencies will develop such guidelines as a way to inform and influence country policy development.
Legal Aspects of HIV/AIDS: A Guide for Policy and Law Reform
A practical guide for assessing the need for legal reform to support effective action related to HIV and AIDS, the book covers 65 prevention, treatment, care and support and related topics. Each topic outlines the rationale for conducting a review of the policy and legal context and provides specific country and international agency examples of appropriate policy and legal responses.
Positive Dialogue Newsletter
The Lawyers Collective is an Indian NGO that provides legal services and advocacy on HIV and AIDS, among other issues. Positive Dialogue is the collective’s newsletter for its HIV and AIDS-related activities. The newsletter has not been published since 2005, but the issues published up to that date provide critiques and analyses of national laws; on-going legal cases to protect the rights of people living with HIV; the rights of sex workers; and access to services. The newsletter is a useful tool for informing policy influencers and building support for policy and legal changes.